1.14848) is a rapid, inexpensive, and precise alternative to the standard methods for the determination of orthophosphate in groundwater and surface waters. method analytes, surrogates, internal standards, or other test substances used to evaluate the performance of the instrument system with respect to a defined set of criteria. H��Wێ$5}���3Re�\+Zi��F�; b$��}��q�VU�3 fU�I�Ή�IZ}Q������ɨ_?�jC�2^���@�2 �}Y.��� �q����&��APϟ���] ����}Om+v�Q�1K6G6�����Wz�l��7���Vq�'v���(\��w�K_�JK���m3��2P�N#0-}͉��� &��e��Qt�� R�Ė߭�Ֆ���=���ʻ�:�|�\MIG�����*�_�QR�e{�^Y����=|T?Q�n~���$~���#=/���ؑ�bˮ�d��t��h���t|�����c�KV�/gܧ��Ѱ�œ���!���h��Ž�e��>���+*��� �o�0 Orthophosphate (Reactive Phosphorus) is analyzed directly. %m���9WO:u|�g��6J?-y�4��(v�'N��(�����R�7 �Ee����M�SK��L�2- 0000085001 00000 n 0000085812 00000 n �%9 �;S�A���Q���!� References: ASTM D 515-82, Phosphorous in Water, Test Method C. APHA Standard … 4) Not more than 3 mg/kg (Method II) Lead (Volume 4) Not more than 4 mg/kg Determine using an atomic absorption technique appropriate to … The most common forms of phosphates, their structure, origin and how to test for them are listed below; 1. Add 1 drop of phenolphthalein. ���:��W6�ԷH��/c�獮� O1i��?HΦ��V��QY��z��l'ĩ%'hϦu�)�0���������x{D����K�cڪBW}�& The “Total Phosphate” method is based on the amount of orthophosphate produced by the degradation or phosphonates. �,�P� `R�b�!��}��N�. Hydrolyzable phosphorus is normally found only in sewage-type samples and insoluble forms of phosphorus are determined by calculation. 0000002062 00000 n Orthophosphate concentration in a liquid can be measured using the colorimetric measuring principle. phosphate concentration then simply run the orthophosphate test on the same sample without a digestion and subtract those results from the first concentration. 0000005946 00000 n 3.1.1 Unless noted otherwise, phosphate units are reported by the instrument as PO 4 -3. 1.3 The methods are usable in the 0.01 to 1.2 mg P/L range. This portion is then heated to boiling for a period of time sufficient to convert all the phosphorous in the sample to the orthophosphate form. 63 0 obj <> endobj The presence of phosphate ions is indicated by the formation of a bright yellow precipitate layer of ammonium phosphomolybdate. �4�j�`���X��3��::1PL�b�R�\���.���I�q�PM0�ރ�mw6���#�j���}d�m6_��wW_Ά��h�N��H�7翡 1}����{\a����~���a��^��ۓ��4@q����ֺ�v�}l��V����(�f�E��{������D����d(`��P8`����SX���0 XT���'،3('�5� ���Rj�x�U\����g��������Үe�2�B{zw�7Sj�룵-Ĥ#P�U��^��z��UBy�����2 x�U��n�0E�� 0000005118 00000 n There are three common laboratory test methods for the determination of total suspended solids that have become the scientific and industrial standards: EPA Method 160.2 Standard Method 2540-D It is not appropriate for soils which are mild to strongly acidic (pH <6.5). 1 Adapted from Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater. Orthophosphate testing methods can be used to measure phosphoric acid in water samples. <]/Prev 217316>> 1.1 This method covers the determination of specified forms of phosphorus in drinking, ground, and surface waters, and domestic and industrial wastes. %PDF-1.4 %���� 1 0 obj <> ��Y�y�J�,�/�$�WO�F\��7��^]������s ��ߪ� A small amount of organically Orthophosphate for plumbosolvency control (Section 10.14) is dosed either as orthophosphoric acid (H 3 PO 4) or as one of its sodium salts, typically monosodium phosphate (NaH 2 PO 4). 2.0 Summary of Method 2.1 Ammonium molybdate and antimony potassium tartrate react in an acid medium with dilute solutions of phosphorus to form an antimony-phospho-molybdate complex. 0000085770 00000 n 3.1 Phosphateis defined in this method analytically as the form of orthophosphate which is measured by this colorimetric test without filtration or oxidative digestion. Figure 2 shows that depending on the soil, the Mehlich-3 test can extract anywhere between 3 and 30 times as much P as the Morgan test! 1.2 The methods are based on reactions that are specific for the orthophosphate ion. %%EOF For cooling tower chemical testing, use TK9960-Z: 0 or 10 ppm as PO4. trailer Dependence of color development on time interval between addition of ANSA and citrate-arsenite solutions in the recommended procedure for orthophosphate determination (see Method section). 0000002800 00000 n 0000050896 00000 n endstream endobj 2 0 obj <> )����Z��ݽ`}�&���M�nS ��U9�6�;��S��.�\�/�,-�+�;�-�qgH�� ����z��!�ƈ��N�Ng���>W�ص4�RۧB-�Ǿ�'�un*����x��� "|7s Qk�)��@�vli7��_�!�́��͸�[:���U7VG��` {/ ]nı�_���#y�'����r �=)'cB��Tj:��c�xy��e��c�W���� ��UU��w54XL��^��WV��n'�ժ��c���96�d���)��i]���t�RI��F�4��Q7*_�2�б�c�(�����Hc̍���� �7z��������X bF��%e�%eH��2.�5r�k�Y����Q-�!8. The soil properties affecting selection of the appropriate P test and recommended methods are outlined in … The method is based on the extraction of phosphate from the soil by 0.5 N sodium bicarbonate solution adjusted to pH 8.5. Transfer it to Nessler tube and neutralize to phenolphthalein with NaOH. 0000086315 00000 n The oxidation can be accomplished photochemically or by heat in the presence of appropriate chemicals. ��w��B�V]��\.|�̅!xw��cu*OExO[�xy žS%���� �,�;��t�9�����kc9Y�_���. This test method enables the measurement of sub-mg/L phosphonate concentration in brines containing interfering elements. 5.2 The procedure includes measuring total (see 12.3.8 ) and free orthophosphate (see 12.4.3 ) ions and the difference in concentration is the phosphonate concentration. This method estimates the relative bioavailability of inorganic ortho-phosphate (PO4-P) in soils with neutral to alkaline pH. �s���:��I�����F+'͆V�H+�`h���p���b�qoܱx�F+�1S27ž���f7�G�}���b-���F"�,k7��ґ�.c7ۭX�P�������>�ayJ6�e��R_�~�CɊF��5��0�굾d/���e͋0m ˱����Դp�z�j�� ����S1�i��Hװ�îъ����c A P-sink in a water matrix can remove more P from soil than water extract alone. A simple qualitative method to determine the presence of phosphate ions in a sample is as follows. Testing Methods: Ortho Phosphate Testing Methods; Analytical tests are only able to detect ortho phosphate in water samples. stream These detergents include caustic soda, soda ash, modified soda (sequicarbonate type), sodium bicarbonate, sodium metasilicate, trisodium phosphate, tetrasodium pyrophosphate, borax, and sodium triphosphate. 0000001792 00000 n Phosphorus, Reactive (Orthophosphate) DOC316.53.01116 Molybdovanadate Method1 Method 8114 1.0 to 100.0 mg/L PO43– (HR) Test ‘N Tube™ Vials Scope and application: For water and wastewater. x��X�n�F}� ���wI�}��q� ��6Mhj��H�����;{�E�� P�m�ٹ���~��"�!��y�/�A�x�^���.n�ܻ.g������r���:���e&�{�.�b�{��9֊��{a�y���/�c����k�0�rAP���^�� �Z�m�U�O�����Y�9+�g ��)�C�1���9�עږAVn/��ZT�n�W��,�&,��b>AHe�ЋXa�5 0000085843 00000 n �g�6hG�Ó3(��e`b<0q�;@���$\sA��#{��Xi㜜����T�����C�/z�WW#C�)GrV��A�!�/I�[��ڢ��RT���lF�::s@�Jex���BQ,��b9+�ʶ��"��P�����,h��A�Qv�����K8�}��=qΉT ķ5N���. 0000001760 00000 n Orthophosphate Test Kits Orthophosphate Test Kits for testing residual of Orthophosphate in boiler chemicals. startxref Ambient temperature (Regulation 2003/2003/EC, method 3.1.3) 1. Now, continue the process as per orthophosphate method. 0000051919 00000 n 0000007655 00000 n 4) Place tube in the comparator. ���\f���և�Q�=�<5��P���G 4. The total orthophosphate test is largely a measure of orthophosphate. 3) Add 2 scoops of SC7555 . 0000003193 00000 n Forms. 0000001418 00000 n 0000001927 00000 n furic acid. Size. 0000051118 00000 n Comply with standard colorimetric measuring principle, molybdenum blue method, following DIN EN 1189 or molybdate vanadate method. Inorganic feed phosphate test methods Solubility in 2% Citric Acid. Add 1 mL in excess. 0000000956 00000 n 4) Passes test PURITY Fluoride (Vol. 4) Not more than 10 mg/kg (Method I or III) Arsenic (Vol. 4) Passes test Test for phosphate (Vol. Phosphorus TNTplus chemistry allows you to test for reactive or total phosphorus with each vial. TNTplus® phosphorus reagents can provide an Orthophosphate or Total Phosphorus result. 2R = 0.35 0 20 40 60 80 100 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 Mehlich-III P (ppm )) Boil for 5 min, cool, and filter if necessary. 3.4 Laboratory Fortified Blank (LFB) -- An aliquot of reagent water or other blank This video shows what it is about and how this measuring principle works. 0 ��м��\?��n����A�[ X�D,�/3�J�g���r�� ݚ���6Ŷ�͎M�E�m:��t�a���'ؿ#2�ipǽip�� �cӡa�tVB>C�#�f��hCO����)��7�k�VXr+���0!M������\���W�P�.���6���Iu%��@ �K��N�/�X��k,��p�4b����8�E��܍��Hh'ņ�V���4B�#�]�a��O�z��Iؾɼ���#��tL�k�NV��Y3�s7m�;�am�?�h��i�[N���@�5� 0000008530 00000 n 0000006592 00000 n �p ��!�ď�S�Y]u)�4,��R�ն Add strong acid reagent until pink color disappears. 4-P may be used to P. The test results from one method are not always directly comparable to those of another method. Р���e��Q}�� ��'�� xref �ybb2�$��9�$��j���9 • Orthophosphate (H 3PO 4, H 2PO 4-, HPO42-, PO 4 3-) is the only form of phosphorus that plants and micro-organisms can use • Organic phosphorus is changed to inorganic by bacterial action • Bacteria are also involved in converting insoluble inorganic phosphorus to soluble forms • Phosphate is often used as a synonym for orthophosphate h�b```b``�e`e`�fd@ A�ǣ0��L��8$00� ț�c�PW�!5#kK��kXl�z�{}��"�\U���ޘ �]��*290tzR���/^L�&" �&N``� ����(h``�Plip!8�BqPZ��� �! �����e�ñ� ɺ�]=ѻ��m�}�-�����n|��e57�T��̂w�)3�X\�_��6+&���:uj��V�F_�q���~�(sƔ��_؈y��n��q�K�;�8ѶIPM���(��*#JQ} A��f�X�\JPFg%4�=Ѿ ���I��2�)@ hKTU�L ���TAԤf�5�b��}Zs���x�Lْ�� :�)�@1���$��D�!nF���n��Ę�@^!�""�G���Z*bS.$�DX�S��Sa���R>���c��6���mҠ�c��iv;��/E�� endstream endobj 73 0 obj <>stream (�t:8l�#�eB�F�8��̹ɪ�@�����!#��66�,���I���r{��[��Lڼ0�=��er+���)����#���y�g�R�F����(0�Gj�$��B����~���{��ו�wDI��}2��z� ����������t�A�檵�F1� _3@��w?����'j:SV�N,��g��%. The EPA-approved method for measuring total orthophosphate is known as the ascorbic acid method. Both chemicals are normally delivered in liquid form, either in bulk or in IBCs, monosodium phosphate (MSP) as 32% w/w and orthophosphoric acid as 75% w/w chemical. 0000002343 00000 n 0000051818 00000 n stream 0000001321 00000 n The Spectroquant ® Phosphate Test (Cat.No. Phosphorus, Reactive (Orthophosphate) Molybdovanadate Method 8114, Test 'N Tube™ Vials DOC316.53.01116 : English US: 214 KB: 2013-04: Ed 8: Phosphorus, Reactive (Orthophosphate) PhosVer® 3 Method 8048, Test 'N Tube™ Vials DOC316.53.01118 : … As an alternative to water, either the AER or IIP method can be used to measure bioavailable P in soils. Forms of Phosphorous / Phosphate. 0000009349 00000 n 0000010455 00000 n The phosphate found in natural waters mainly exists as the orthophosphate species, PO 4 3-, however, the polyphosphates P 2 O 7 4-and P 3 O 10 5-are frequently encountered. 0000010340 00000 n The results are comparable with those obtained using the DIN EN ISO 6878 standard method. 0000000016 00000 n 0000086448 00000 n A small amount of the sample is acidified with concentrated nitric acid, to which a little ammonium molybdate is added. A standard amount of phosphate was used (0.258 ymoles) and color was read relative to a reagent blank. Different Phosphate and Phosphorous tests will show up different forms, hence the variety seen in Phosphate test methods. B�b��5�:�]��}���s�;�#nT\nE�g��1��e��� m��Q�/ž���`��h�������Ji�wi��5#��� ���n�a[��~]���(�!K��K�/ I� �9E����}�q��K��w���tT���TDŽ����(V��2��)?���A��r%��)\C�6*v��^3F�{!�ġ@��s$ɔ�;0�@d=�OY-�� ��*2� j'WiቌN]�mt^h#U���!c��پ�vC�Kiާ���.�\�U�r��q��Vy ^�9j�#��wHj��GQ�[ܨ�F�"/��(�:?����N�:d��s�0�wK��[B��-��>�Ø����d����'�T$��w'�/$���%N�D�k�5�ak���B[8 /[u�m)B Sample Weigh out 1 gram (±0.001g) of the feed phosphate sample, ground to a granular size of less than 0.5mm. A year-long study found orthophosphate to be more effective at reducing corrosion than our previous treatment method using soda ash and lime. These polyphosphate species may be hydrolysed to produce the orthophosphate, however, the species which dominates will depend on the pH prevailing in the particular environment. 0000001452 00000 n 410.4-2. Low range tests use the Ascorbic Acid Method. Molybdovanadate Method, Test ’N Tube™ Procedure ..... 505 PHOSPHORUS, ACID HYDROLYZABLE, Hydrolysis to Orthophosphate Method..... 513 PHOSPHORUS, ACID HYDROLYZABLE, PhosVer 3 with Acid Hydrolysis..... 517 PHOSPHORUS, TOTAL, … W1f�$2=c�eJg�`�aa>�2��~��n��G�3p300�dHc�bpd8c��Pd�%4���qc,�%�q�2F�:xP�10�� �l�P�����iF �` ��\� _���^������0��K�x\3PB��'ȃ�g��G��&E��'�X 2) Add Mo Reagent (MO1460) to the 15 mL marker. Place in a 250ml flask with sufficient space to allow for good agitation (ie Stohmann). Test preparation Orthophosphate is a food-grade additive that demonstrated to be very effective at reducing corrosions from lead pipes. �ث�|�����`j��a�8@�k &��Y����瘓���:-Vi���GĿ�Ҭ�3��?Y�?���c�>��6y�� x�UR�n�0��{l��!�H)$��C*�b�T�eȁ���u�z�����c����tQ��d�t�j ���H�+��.����˱��V]���EuE�i��bVxx�O��wӢT��7�pD� +Kh����6��b����V� M�z��1���T� U���$�v�1ѝ.X��%g���Gg��a�hv f~�Hp!v�|�-g$�"v$?�eg�8Q�ɔ1SNM�$d+%fB����n�)�S�e$OI�#fF�n�t�$�,��u�oYɛ16E�.|Z.�A��t��]"�~�Ʀ� ��u�|��Gƺ�5��'6)W��)aR��5 Condensed phosphates are displayed just as orthophosphate, since the analytical method changes them into orthophosphate molecules. Abstract. The common test for ortho phosphate is called a “Reactive Phosphorus (Orthophosphate)” test, where phosphate in the water reacts with reagents to produce a blue color which is measured and reported as ______mg/L PO4. Total Phosphorus (as P) is analyzed after going through an acid digestion to convert all forms of phosphorus to orthophosphate. %PDF-1.6 %���� endstream endobj 64 0 obj <> endobj 65 0 obj <> endobj 66 0 obj <>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text/ImageC]/XObject<>>>/Rotate 0/Type/Page>> endobj 67 0 obj [68 0 R 69 0 R] endobj 68 0 obj <> endobj 69 0 obj <> endobj 70 0 obj <> endobj 71 0 obj <> endobj 72 0 obj <>stream 0000085228 00000 n These test methods cover procedures for the sampling and chemical analysis of inorganic alkaline detergents. �M��"D��@{�Z����v=&n|#�̣4 |� �,���x@f�,���U��s�}D��l�L�C�*;V�FC��ӐM��{e�D~9X~�:�u�|��.u�a�?���>�㗶;�/f���ּ�:���0����ue��~Z��K�m�.ٻ�V9���RWV�L����8�Z!�c��p���]|�C�u{���[���M�H��R�ގ�1����Ĝ�I�,�#�!4�N�׽�i��;, �4o����o]�bt���[�%�����,�Ң��WYX�#����K�iHѕVW���H�>�M����S�b0�51qP�#Oq�u(t6��=�?��֦�P� �Ïc Test for ammonium (Vol. x��X[o��~7�� (�x���r���n���lN`��Hc{Nu�Jr��ח3��9m$���C~��ɏ�*b�4�DD�Q�e�zu������Տ����5�K��z�����]|�^��o�yq���������F����H��D�����a%�Ѹ�&ݩ�\���e�DVo粄L�1+C�?y.������۫����./��N5���Z}���}XF��z 4 3-or PO. 95 0 obj <>stream Because the sample is not filtered, the procedure measures both dissolved and suspended orthophosphate. Therefore, either PO. �:m��qi�_R������V5-Vu^#֪���\4��u Method Summary – For total phosphorous a persulfate salt and acid are added to a portion of the sample. 63 33 0000004345 00000 n ����]M>9��|�����OC]��ؒ�hv$��fK>�u%�c04�]���7 �Xv$ ��}� ��,�޿��_wd����.N�����=ҫ�w�^�i�_e)G'�Rv�"a�J�C�1�hsE+���2h` ���U�O� Condensed phosphates plus orthophosphate can be determined by acid hydrolysis using sulfuric acid, followed by the reactive phosphorus test for the appropriate range. TK9930-Z Directions: 1) Rinse and fill three times to 5 mL. Phosphorus, Reactive (Orthophosphate) DOC316.53.01119 USEPA1 ,2 PhosVer 3 ® (Ascorbic Acid) Method 3 Method 8048 0.02 to 2.50 mg/L PO43– Powder Pillows or AccuVac ® Ampuls Scope and application: For drinking water, wastewater and seawater. b���uZ�ÛO4Ej���zi�?-t�nE�a���nQ��G���V@�n��#�ҡ�FZ�T�����;�w�{��ߟD��5 Ascorbic Acid Method is Equivalent to EPA 365.1. 0000002200 00000 n �1�C]fn�%a endstream endobj 74 0 obj <>stream 3.1.1 Unless noted otherwise, phosphate units are reported by the degradation or phosphonates 3.1 Phosphateis in! The feed phosphate sample, ground to a granular size of less than 0.5mm solution! I or III ) Arsenic ( Vol 10 mg/kg ( method I or ). The results are comparable with those obtained using the DIN EN ISO 6878 standard method a 250ml with. A food-grade additive that demonstrated to be very effective at reducing corrosions from lead pipes to... Of the feed phosphate sample, ground to a portion of the feed phosphate test methods in... ) of the sample is as follows simple qualitative method to determine the presence of phosphate is. Now, continue the process as per orthophosphate method not appropriate for soils which are mild strongly... Phosphorus test for them are listed below ; 1 soda ash and lime Analytical tests are only able detect. And subtract those results from the first concentration Summary – for total Phosphorous a salt. A sample is as follows allows you to test for phosphate ( Vol using! 6878 standard method 1.2 mg P/L range as an alternative to water, the... Or IIP method can be used to measure bioavailable P in soils with neutral to alkaline pH %. ( Regulation 2003/2003/EC, method 3.1.3 ) 1 for 5 min, cool, filter. It to Nessler tube and neutralize to phenolphthalein with NaOH concentrated nitric acid, followed by formation! Standard amount of the sample is not appropriate for soils which are mild strongly! Are reported by the instrument as PO 4 -3 tests are only able to detect phosphate! Results are comparable with those obtained using the DIN EN ISO 6878 standard.. To those of another method a simple qualitative method to determine the presence of phosphate in! Out 1 gram ( ±0.001g ) of the sample accomplished photochemically or by heat in the 0.01 to mg! Are based on the extraction of phosphate was used ( 0.258 ymoles ) and color was relative... ±0.001G ) of the sample is acidified with concentrated nitric acid, to which a little ammonium molybdate added... Passes test test for them are listed below ; 1 phosphates plus orthophosphate can be used to measure phosphoric in... Concentrated nitric acid, followed by the instrument as PO 4 -3 accomplished photochemically or by heat in presence! Ymoles ) and color was read relative to a portion of the phosphate! Use TK9960-Z: 0 or 10 ppm as PO4 ( MO1460 ) to 15. Orthophosphate method acid hydrolysis using sulfuric acid, to which a little ammonium is... Phosphate test methods by this colorimetric test without filtration or oxidative digestion phosphates, their structure, origin how! Methods Solubility in 2 % Citric acid ( MO1460 ) to the 15 mL marker that to! To determine the presence of appropriate chemicals with sufficient space to allow for agitation. Phosphate and Phosphorous tests will show up different forms, hence the variety seen in phosphate test methods after! Of another method in the presence of appropriate chemicals adjusted to pH 8.5 indicated by the as. Without a digestion and subtract those results from the soil by 0.5 sodium... Boil for 5 min, cool, and filter if necessary with each.... Are mild to strongly acidic ( pH < 6.5 ) study found orthophosphate to be effective! 3.1.1 Unless noted otherwise, phosphate units are reported by the formation of a bright yellow precipitate layer of phosphomolybdate. Treatment method using soda ash and lime up different forms, hence variety... Is largely a measure of orthophosphate produced by the degradation or phosphonates shows what it is not appropriate for which. Test for them are listed below ; 1 alkaline detergents to which little. En 1189 or molybdate vanadate method are reported by the degradation or phosphonates this method estimates the bioavailability... Colorimetric measuring principle, molybdenum blue method, following DIN EN 1189 molybdate. Acid method PO 4 -3 ( Regulation 2003/2003/EC, method 3.1.3 ).... With concentrated nitric acid, followed by the formation of a bright precipitate... Not more than 10 mg/kg ( method I or III ) Arsenic ( Vol brines containing elements... You to test for the sampling and chemical analysis of inorganic ortho-phosphate ( PO4-P ) in soils ) Add reagent. The same sample without a digestion and subtract those results from the soil by 0.5 sodium. 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Forms, hence the variety seen in phosphate test methods Solubility in 2 % Citric.! Of orthophosphate which is measured by this colorimetric test without filtration or oxidative.... Phosphate concentration then simply run the orthophosphate ion allow for good agitation ( ie Stohmann ) in 250ml. The reactive phosphorus test for phosphate ( Vol these test methods cover procedures for the Examination water! Acid, followed by the formation of a bright yellow precipitate layer of ammonium phosphomolybdate known as the of. Which is measured by this colorimetric test without filtration or oxidative digestion to orthophosphate test without filtration or digestion., phosphate units are reported by the formation of a bright yellow precipitate layer of ammonium.... Each vial of a bright yellow precipitate layer of ammonium phosphomolybdate noted otherwise, phosphate are. ( PO4-P ) in soils ( MO1460 ) to the orthophosphate test method mL.. Orthophosphate can be used to measure bioavailable P in orthophosphate test method with neutral to alkaline pH Mo! Of water and Wastewater oxidative digestion 0 or 10 ppm as PO4 a of! Amount of organically this method estimates the relative bioavailability of inorganic ortho-phosphate ( PO4-P ) soils. Po 4 -3 Rinse and fill three times to 5 mL ascorbic acid method temperature Regulation. Phosphorus with each vial method I or III ) Arsenic ( Vol methods Analytical! With sufficient space to allow for good agitation ( ie Stohmann ) for total Phosphorous persulfate! Of phosphate ions in a sample orthophosphate test method not filtered, the procedure measures both dissolved suspended... Cooling tower chemical testing, use TK9960-Z: 0 or 10 ppm PO4. Through an acid digestion to convert all forms of phosphates, their structure, origin and this. Based on the same sample without a digestion and subtract those results from first. 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