Peptides 30, 2191–9 (2009). 2014;109:188–98. A ray of venom: combined proteomic and transcriptomic investigation of fish venom composition using barb tissue from the blue-spotted stingray (Neotrygon kuhlii). J. Its teeth are used to crack shells of prey. The sting is used for self-defense. Conceição K. et al. orbignyi freshwater stingray venom. https://bcachemistry.wordpress.com/2014/05/28/chemistry-of- Most are comprised of a large number of components, of which the enzymes, small peptides, and proteins are studied for their important bioactivities. Cardiotoxic effects have been demonstrated in humans and experimental animals, but stingray venom does not have anticoagulant, hemolytic, or neuromuscular-blocking properties. The ray's body is flattened, with a long tail tipped with a stinger that is barbed, like a harpoon. The barb on this ray is for defense and contains venom that produces intense pain and sometimes paralysis in humans. All these perspectives are merged in my PhD studies on stingray venom’s evolutionary background, bioactivity, intra- and interspecific variability in composition, and even potential applicability in pharmacology. A ray of venom: Combined proteomic and transcriptomic investigation of fish venom composition using barb tissue from the blue-spotted stingray (Neotrygon kuhlii) doi: 10.1016/j.jprot.2014.06.004. The results of this study indicate that (1) juvenile present higher toxicity than mature specimens and (2) venom composition does not change during maturation. A ray of venom: combined proteomic and transcriptomic investigation of fish venom composition using barb tissue from the blue-spotted stingray (Neotrygon kuhlii). Protein annotation was underpinned by a venom gland transcriptome. A ray of venom: Combined proteomic and transcriptomic investigation of fish venom composition using barb tissue from the blue-spotted stingray (Neotrygon kuhlii). [ Links ] 61. The stingray belongs to the superorder of cartilaginous fish, commonly known as rays and skates. Fish venom: pharmacological features and biological significance. Ensuring the efficacy of drug development to treat stingray injuries can be assisted by the knowledge of the venom composition. Southern stingray lives alone or with a mate, and is occasionally found in groups. A study by the FAPESP-funded Research, Innovation and Dissemination Center shows that toxins produced by young female stingrays cause more pain, whereas toxins … 9 Additionally, the venom causes local vasoconstriction and ischemia, which can contribute to delayed wound healing as well. Gisha Sivan. Stingray venom is unique in its enzymatic composition and results in distinct soft tissue injury patterns. We analysed the protein extract using 1D and 2D gels with LC–MS/MS sequencing. Characterization of a new bioactive peptide from Potamotrygon gr. to venom and increases the risk of subsequent wound infection. However, studies demonstrating the influence of sex and maturation stage on the composition of stingray venom and its toxic effects are still scarce,” Lopes-Ferreira said. It is sometimes kept in aquaria. Department of Marine Biology, Microbiology and Biochemistry, Cochin University of Science and Technology, Kerala, 682016, India; Search for more papers by this author. The composition of our N. kuhlii Southern stingray is a non-aggressive animal, posing little threat to humans. In the present study, we performed the first comparison of venom toxicity and composition in two different maturity stages of the freshwater stingray P. leopoldi. A study at the Butantan Institute, São Paulo, Brazil, revealed that the freshwater stingray venom changes according to sex and age. When the bee stings, the venom is mixed with water, so the actual composition of the substance it injects into you is around 88% water and 12% venom. Free Online Library: Stingray poisoning, a careless aspect in Mexico. Baumann K, Casewell NR, Ali SA, Jackson TN, Vetter I, Dobson JS, et al. Two cases of stingray injury which caused extensive tissue necrosis are reported. CAS Article PubMed Google Scholar Stingray venom can cause significant tissue necrosis, which can lead to delayed wound healing. 2014; 109 :188–198. The Xingu River ray, white-blotched river stingray, or polka-dot stingray (Potamotrygon leopoldi) is a species of freshwater fish in the family Potamotrygonidae.It is endemic to the Xingu River basin in Brazil and prefers rocky bottoms. Typically, a pattern of acute inflammation occurs, with a predominantly lymphoid cellular infiltrate followed by necrosis. A stingray's mouth is on the underside of its flat body, so that it can feed on worms, crustaceans and other creatures on the seafloor. 10 There have been reports of chronic wounds secondary to stingray injuries. It uses its whip-like tail to stab the stinger into predators. The Xingu river ray is a venomous stingray that contains venom localized at its dentine spine in its tail. miRNA represents a class of small (∼22 nt) noncoding RNA that regulate gene expression by degrading their target mRNA and/or inhibiting their translation (Ambros 2004). Animal venoms are widely recognized excellent resources for the discovery of novel drug leads and physiological tools. Freshwater stingray venom varies according to sex and age June 05, 2019. In one patient, the wound was allegedly inflicted by Dasyatis kuhlii, the blue-spotted stingray; in the other, by D. sephen, the cowtail ray. A ray of venom: Combined proteomic and transcriptomic investigation of fish venom composition using barb tissue from the blue-spotted stingray (Neotrygon kuhlii) June 2014 Journal of Proteomics 109 2014;109:188–98. Here we performed a detailed transcriptomic characterization of the venom gland of the South American freshwater stingray Potamotrygon motoro. The stingray is notable in that it stores its venom within tissue cells. The main toxic component of bee venom, also referred to as apitoxin, is melittin. J Proteomics. First published: 6 … According to the study, sexual maturity is required for this alteration in the venom composition to occur. A ray of venom: Combined proteomic and transcriptomic investigation of fish venom composition using barb tissue from the blue-spotted stingray (Neotrygon kuhlii) J. Proteomics. the venom composition of the P. motoro stingray that can easily injure humans, providing information required for the development of safety and treatment measures. proteomic and transcriptomic investigation of fish venom composition using barb 510 tissue from the blue-spotted stingray (Neotrygon kuhlii), J. Proteomics. Besides the regulatory processes discussed above, another posttranscriptional mechanism identified as being responsible for, or contributing to, variation in venom composition, is miRNAs. Box 22452, Riyadh 11495, Saudi Arabia; iabid@ksu.edu.sa [39] Galectin induces cell death in its victims and cystatins inhibit defense enzymes. The environment in which stingray injuries oc- Authors. Based on my previous and current studies on stingray venom… After excision of necrotic tissue, the wounds healed rapidly and without com … Also, recently, the venom gland transcriptome of a marine stingray, Neotrygon kuhlii, was generated8. processes Article A New Group II Phospholipase A2 from Walterinnesia aegyptia Venom with Antimicrobial, Antifungal, and Cytotoxic Potential Islem Abid 1, Ikram Jemel 2, Mona Alonazi 3 and Abir Ben Bacha 2,3,* 1 Botany and Microbiology Department, Science College, King Saud University, P.O. Stingray venom changes as the fish mature. “We set out to discover whether the stage of development and gender of Potamotrygon rex, a freshwater stingray found in rivers throughout South America, influences the composition of its venom and its capacity to trigger an acute inflammatory response using mice as a model.Our results suggest that nociception is induced mainly by the toxins produced by young females,” Lima said. Due to the almost complete lack of information about freshwater stingray venoms, a transcriptomic character - ization analysis could be a good strategy in order to elucidate components of the stingray venom mixtures, since Figure 1. They are close relatives of sharks, and also have a cartilaginous skeleton. Stingray venom systemic effects are associated with viscus penetration, and rarely, if ever, occur in those with peripheral stingray injuries only. Main content area. Poison - Poison - Animal poisons (zootoxins): Poisonous animals are widely distributed throughout the animal kingdom; the only major group that seems to be exempt is the birds. We validated this approach using barb venom gland tissue protein extract from the blue-spotted stingray Neotrygon kuhlii. The toxins that have been confirmed to be within the venom are cystatins , peroxiredoxin , and galectin . Freshwater stingray venom varies according to sex and age 6 June 2019 Credit: CC0 Public Domain There is no antidote or specific treatment for freshwater stingray venom, although accidents Baumann K. et al. (Original Article) by "Advances in Environmental Biology"; Environmental issues Allergic reaction Complications and side effects Allergy Antibacterial agents Arrhythmia Bismuth subsalicylate Bites and stings Coasts Pregnant women Accidents Rivers Staphylococcus aureus infections Stings (Injuries) Sulfonamides J Proteomics. 60. 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